No-fault divorce

No-fault divorce is a divorce in which the dissolution of a marriage does not require a showing of wrongdoing by either party.[1][2] Laws providing for no-fault divorce allow a family court to grant a divorce in response to a petition by either party of the marriage without requiring the petitioner to provide evidence that the defendant has committed a breach of the marital contract.


In early modern Europe, Prussia took a pioneering role with Frederick the Great's 1757 edict allowing marriages to be resolved on the ground of serious and continuous hostility between spouses, without pointing to any one guilty party. This early example of no-fault divorce was expanded on and formalized with the 1794 General State Laws for the Prussian States, which allowed childless couples to file for divorce without giving a ground.[3]

The first modern no-fault divorce law was enacted in Russia in December 1917 following the October Revolution of the same year. Regarding marriage as a bourgeois institution, the new government transferred divorce jurisdiction from the Russian Orthodox Church to the state courts, which could grant it on application of either spouse.[4][5] Alimony guarantees under the new regime were weak until a new family code was passed in 1926.[5][6]

With a law adopted in 1969, California became the first U.S. state to permit no-fault divorce.[7] California's law was framed on a roughly contemporaneous effort of the non-governmental organization National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws, which began drafting a model of no-fault divorce statute for states to consider in 1967.[8]

Australia established no-fault divorce in 1975, with the only ground for divorce being irretrievable breakdown of marriage, evidenced by a twelve-month separation. Canada effectively permitted no-fault divorce in 1986 by reducing the separation period to one year.


Arguments for no-fault divorceEdit

Several studies have looked at the effect of no-fault divorce on divorce rates in the United States. The studies typically find an increase in the short-term rate but little long-term causal relationship. The most frequent explanation given is that the older laws were ineffective and not followed anyway, though there are some differing viewpoints.[9][10] Economists Betsey Stevenson and Justin Wolfers, based on findings in their research, argue that domestic violence and female suicide decline in states that legalize no-fault divorce.[11] Specifically, they report that "states that adopted no-fault divorce experienced a decrease of 8 to 16 percent in wives' suicide rates and a 30 percent decline in domestic violence."[12] They also argue that their research proves that there is no permanent effect of no-fault divorce laws on divorce rates.[11]

Stephanie Coontz, a professor of history at Evergreen State College, states that "in the years since no-fault divorce became well-nigh universal, the national divorce rate has fallen, from about 23 divorces per 1,000 married couples in 1979 to under 17 per 1,000 in 2005."[12] She adds that "once you permit the courts to determine when a person's desire to leave is legitimate, you open the way to arbitrary decisions about what is or should be tolerable in a relationship, made by people who have no stake in the actual lives being lived."[12]

A 2010 New York Times editorial said that New York was "the only state where a court must find fault before granting a divorce unless the spouses have lived apart for a full year under a formal separation agreement — a proven formula for inviting false testimony, endless litigation and generally making divorce far more painful than it needs to be."[13] Later that year, New York became the final state to allow no-fault divorce. Lawyer L.M. Fenton states that "Feminist holdouts against New York's new [no-fault divorce] bill don't understand how family law affects women today", adding: "It also mystifies me that spouses could still, even in 2010, be forced to stay married to someone who refused to let go."[14]

Fault-based grounds usually include mental cruelty, but true mental cruelty has a psychological component that can make it very difficult for the abused spouse to articulate that abuse. More to the point, the abused spouse may be terrified to describe the relationship on paper and testify about it in a court. And of course, a controlling partner will always choose the path of most resistance to whatever it is that the other spouse wants.[14]

The state adopted no-fault divorce later that year.

Arguments against no-fault divorceEdit

The National Organization for Women opposed the introduction of no-fault divorce in New York State because it would allow a party who actually is at fault to obtain a divorce in which "alimony, maintenance [and] property division" would be determined without the judge considering "the facts, behavior and circumstances that led to the break-up of the marriage".[15]

A paper published in the Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, written by Douglas Allen, on the economics of same-sex marriage, argues that the introduction of no-fault divorce led to a six-fold increase in just two years, after a century of rather stable divorce rates. Also, the law increased the rate at which women entered the workforce, increased the number of hours worked in a week, increased the so-called "feminization of poverty," and increased the age at which people married.[16]

Stephen Baskerville, a political scientist at Patrick Henry College, argues that no-fault divorce rewards wrongdoers, reduces the need of marital binding agreement contracts at the public's expense, and helps women take custody of their children at the husbands' expense in many cases where the man has done nothing wrong. He also adds that a ban on divorce will not work, because people will separate themselves and be in a permanent state of adultery, or they will create a hostile home environment for the children.[17][18]

Laws by countryEdit


Australia adopted no-fault divorce in 1975 with the enactment of the Family Law Act 1975. The only ground for divorce is irretrievable breakdown of marriage, evidenced by a twelve-month separation. However, a residual "fault" element remains in relation to child custody and property settlement issues.


In Canada before 1968, the only grounds for divorce were adultery or cruelty. However, in 1968, the Divorce Act was amended to permit divorce for other reasons, including physical and mental cruelty and separation for at least three years. The Divorce Act was amended in 1986 to reduce the separation period to one year, with no requirement to prove "fault" by either spouse. The fault grounds for divorce are also available.


China has allowed no-fault divorce since the adoption of the New Marriage Law in 1950. No-fault divorce has become much more common since the 1980s. The current marriage law provides that divorce shall always be granted if sought by both husband and wife. Divorce is also granted if one party can present evidence of incompatibility, such as separation for at least two years.

Divorce may be granted either by court or by a marriage registration office. The latter can only do so when both parties have reached an agreement on child custody and property settlement.


Until 1976, divorce was only possible if one spouse had acted wrongly – a rule referred to as the Schuldprinzip ("principle of guilt"). In 1976, the law was changed to make no-fault divorces the standard. The law says that "A marriage may be dissolved by divorce if it has broken down. The marriage has broken down if the conjugal community of the spouses no longer exists and it cannot be expected that the spouses restore it."[19]

Some provisions of the old, guilt-based system remain. In particular, the separation period required before a formal divorce can be shortened if "the continuation of the marriage would be an unreasonable hardship for the petitioner for reasons that lie in the person of the other spouse". While formally no guilt is required on the part of the spouse, in practice this rule is usually applied if the spouse acts irresponsibly, for example if they are violent or threaten their partner.[20]


A Maltese law permitting no-fault divorce went into effect in October 2011, following a national referendum on the subject. This was the first Maltese law permitting any kind of divorce.[21]


In Mexico City, this type of divorce is legally known as divorcio incausado o sin expresión de causa and colloquially as divorcio exprés. The law was passed for the first time in Mexico City in 2008 and held constitutional by the Supreme Court, which in 2015 established that any state law requiring to prove the case for a divorce was unconstitutional.[citation needed]


No-fault divorce was introduced by the Bolsheviks following the Russian Revolution of 1917.[6] Before the Revolution, religious institutions tended to define family life. It was the ecclesiastical law of the Russian Orthodox Church that controlled the family, marriage, and divorce. For example, the official registration of birth, death, marriage, and divorce was the responsibility of the parish church. Under these non-secular laws, divorce was highly restricted (but always somewhat available, since the Russian Orthodox Church allows divorce for adultery, desertion, and physical cruelty).

The 1918 Decree on Divorce eliminated the religious marriage and the underlying ecclesiastical law, replacing them with civil marriage sanctioned by the state. Divorce was obtained by filing a mutual consent document with the Russian Registry Office, or by the unilateral request of one party to the court. The divorce law under the Bolsheviks did not penalize the husband with alimony, child support, or debtor's prison for non-payment, as every individual was to be provided for by the state anyway. The two partners were entirely free of legal obligations to each other after divorce. The concept of child support, however, was introduced to the family law of Russia in the 1990s after the fall of the Soviet Union.


In Spain, this type of divorce is legally known as divorcio incausado or divorcio unilateral and colloquially as divorcio exprés. No-fault divorce was introduced in Spain in 2005 as part of the reform of Spain's divorce law of 1981.


Swedish law does not include a showing-of-fault requirement for divorce. The couple can file for divorce together or one party can file alone. If one party does not wish to get divorced or if they have children under 16 living at home, there is a required contemplation period of 6 to 12 months. During this period, they stay married and the request must be confirmed after the waiting period for the divorce to go through.[22]

United KingdomEdit

The current fault-based system as used in England and Wales has been reported in the media as unnecessarily provocative, in that couples have to appropriate blame for the marriage breakdown. The UK Family Justice System follows the Children Act 1989 Part 1 Section 1 which states 'the child's welfare shall be the court's paramount consideration' when a court determines any question with respect to the upbringing of a child.[23] Following years of campaigning by the legal community, the UK parliament adopted the Divorce, Dissolution and Separation Act 2020, with a tentative implementation date in autumn 2021.[24][25]

Scotland, on the other hand, permits de facto no-fault divorce under certain grounds set out by the Divorce (Scotland) Act 1976 (as amended by the Family Law (Scotland) Act 2006). One example where no-fault divorce is allowed in Scotland is when a couple proves they have resided separately for at least a year and non-fault divorce can therefore be granted with the consent of the other party.[26][27]

United StatesEdit

Today, every state plus the District of Columbia permits no-fault divorce, though requirements for obtaining a no-fault divorce vary.[28] California was the first U.S. state to enact a no-fault divorce law. Its law was signed by Governor Ronald Reagan, a divorced and remarried former movie actor, and came into effect in 1970.[29] New York was the last state to enact a no-fault divorce law; that law was passed in 2010.[30][31]

Before no-fault divorce was available, spouses seeking divorce would often allege false grounds for divorce.[32] Removing the incentive to perjure was one motivation for the no-fault movement.[33]

In the States of Wisconsin, Oregon, Washington, Nevada, Nebraska, Montana, Missouri, Minnesota, Michigan, Kentucky, Kansas, Illinois,[34] Iowa, Indiana, Hawaii, Florida, Colorado and California, a person seeking a divorce is not permitted to allege a fault-based ground (e.g. adultery, abandonment or cruelty).[35]

Requirements for divorce prior to the enactment of no-fault divorceEdit

Prior to the advent of no-fault divorce, a divorce was processed through the adversarial system as a civil action, meaning that a divorce could be obtained only through a showing of fault of one (and only one) of the parties in a marriage. This required that one spouse plead that the other had committed adultery, abandonment, felony, or other similarly culpable acts. However, the other spouse could plead a variety of defenses, like recrimination (essentially an accusation of "so did you"). A judge could find that the respondent had not committed the alleged act or the judge could accept the defense of recrimination and find both spouses at fault for the dysfunctional nature of their marriage.[36] Either of these two findings was sufficient to defeat an action for divorce, which meant that the parties remained married.[37]

In some states, requirements were even more stringent. For instance, under its original (1819) constitution, Alabama required not only the consent of a court of chancery for a divorce (and only "in cases provided for by law"), but equally that of two-thirds of both houses of the state legislature.[38] This requirement was dropped in 1861, when the state adopted a new constitution at the outset of the American Civil War. The required vote in this case was even stricter than that required to overturn the governor's veto in Alabama, which required only a simple majority of both houses of the General Assembly.[39]

Methods for bypassing the showing-of-fault requirements for divorceEdit

These requirements could be problematic if both spouses were at fault or if neither spouse had committed a legally culpable act but both spouses desired a divorce by mutual consent. Lawyers began to advise their clients on how to create legal fictions to bypass the statutory requirements. One method popular in New York was referred to as "collusive adultery", in which both sides deliberately agreed that the wife would come home at a certain time and discover her husband committing adultery with a "mistress" obtained for the occasion.[40] The wife would then falsely swear to a carefully tailored version of these facts in court (thereby committing perjury). The husband would admit a similar version of those facts. The judge would convict the husband of adultery, and the couple could be divorced.

In many other states, especially California, the most popular allegation for divorce was cruelty (which was then unavailable in New York). For example, in 1950, wives pleaded "cruelty" as the basis for 70 percent of San Francisco divorce cases.[40] Wives would regularly testify to the same facts: their husbands swore at them, hit them, and generally treated them terribly.[40] This procedure was described by Supreme Court of California Associate Justice Stanley Mosk:

Every day, in every superior court in the state, the same melancholy charade was played: the "innocent" spouse, generally the wife, would take the stand and, to the accompanying cacophony of sobbing and nose-blowing, testify under the deft guidance of an attorney to the spousal conduct that she deemed "cruel."[41]

An even simpler practice for people living in states where divorce was difficult to obtain was to go "forum shopping." This meant one of the parties would move to another state where no-fault divorce was available, stay there long enough to become a resident, then file for divorce there. Nevada was extremely popular for this purpose as its residency period was only six weeks.[42] For some couples, if there really was no problem in settling the issues of their marriage, a weekend trip to Mexico was also an option. Or in some cases, a party deciding they wanted to marry someone else could combine a filing for divorce and a new marriage in one trip to Mexico. As no-fault became near-universal, the need to use Nevada or Mexico to evade restrictive divorce laws became less and less necessary.

Advocates for eliminating the showing-of-fault requirements for divorceEdit

Many American lawyers and judges objected to the legal fictions used to satisfy the requirements for divorce, which were effectively rendering oaths meaningless and threatening to wreck the integrity of the American justice system by making perjury into a commonplace occurrence. As early as the 1930s, a treatise on American family law complained:

In divorce litigation it is well known that the parties often seek to evade the statutory limitations and thus there is great danger of perjury, collusion, and fraud. In many cases no defense is interposed, and often when the case is contested the contest is not waged with vigor or good faith.[43]

In addition, advocates for no-fault divorce argued that the law should be changed to provide a straightforward procedure for ending a marriage, rather than forcing a couple who simply couldn't get along to choose between living together in "marital hell"[where?]or lying under oath in open court.[citation needed](Where in 20th-century America was it legally mandated that married couples must continue to live together unless or until they obtained a divorce? Either substantiate this claim by citing source(s), put the claim in the form of an actual direct quote from a specifically named person, or remove the claim from this article.) The most prominent advocate of this position was feminist law professor Herma Hill Kay (who later became dean of UC Berkeley School of Law).[44]

At its convention in 1947, the National Association of Women Lawyers (NAWL) voted to draft and promote a bill that would embody the ideal of no-fault divorce and describes its efforts to promote the passage of no-fault divorce laws as "the greatest project NAWL has ever undertaken."[45]

Other states were slower to adopt no-fault divorce. For example, Pennsylvania did not introduce no-fault divorce until around 1980.[46]

California's Family Law Act of 1969Edit

California adopted no-fault divorce with the Family Law Act of 1969, which became effective January 1, 1970.[47] The Act abolished California's action for divorce and replaced it with a proceeding for dissolution of marriage on the grounds of irreconcilable differences. The grounds of irreconcilable differences are accepted as true, and can be based on the assertions of one of the parties to the marriage.[48][49]

The Uniform Marriage and Divorce ActEdit

At about the same time that California adopted no-fault divorce, the National Conference of Commissioners of Uniform State Laws (NCCUSL) appointed a committee to draft a uniform marriage and divorce law for consideration by state legislatures, and the American Bar Association's Family Law Section was asked to appoint a committee to work with the committee from the NCCUSL.[50] The initial draft of the Uniform Marriage and Divorce Law written by the NCCUSL committee would direct judges to grant the petitioner's request to end the marriage if the judge found that the marriage was "irretrievably broken", a term which this draft did not define.[50] Since the term "irretrievably broken" was not defined, the committee from the American Bar Association (ABA) Family Law Section disapproved of this draft of the Uniform Marriage and Divorce Act.[50] In response, the NCCUSL committee added a 180-day separation requirement in order for judges to find that the marriage had been irretrievably broken.[50] However, the NCCUSL committee also added language to allow judges to grant a petitioner a divorce if "there is serious marital discord adversely affecting one or both parties toward the marriage."[50] A further problem with "irretrievably broken" is that it seems to assume that broken pieces are somehow acceptable if they can be retrieved, even though they are not put back together.[51]

The committee from the ABA Family Law Section objected to the ability of a petitioner to avoid the 180-day separation requirement by asserting "serious marital discord".[50] In his letter recommending that the American Bar Association House of Delegates not approve the amended draft proposed by the NCCUSL, Arnold J. Gibbs, the chairman of the ABA Family Law Section, stated that the NCCUSL's proposed draft created a rubber stamp type of divorce procedure. He wrote: "The creation of a mere 'rubber stamp type' of divorce procedure would not be in the best interests of the family, its individual members, and society in general."[52]

Copies of the recommendation to disapprove the NCCUSL's amended draft were provided to the National Conference of Commissioners of Uniform State Laws (NCCUSL), Young Lawyers Section and the National Association of Women Lawyers (NAWL).[52] The committee from the NCCUSL refused to further amend its draft of the Uniform Marriage and Divorce Act.[50][52]

At the 1974 midwinter meeting of the American Bar Association in Houston, Council members of the Family Law Section indicated dissatisfaction with the public image the section was getting from its opposition to the NCCUSL's draft of the Uniform Marriage and Divorce Act. In a policy statement, the ABA Family Law Section chose "to recognize separation only as conclusive evidence of marital breakdown and not as its unbending test", implying that "other kinds of evidence would be admissible to establish breakdown as well."[50]

The adoption of no-fault divorce laws by the other statesEdit

By 1977, nine states had adopted no-fault divorce laws,[45] and by late 1983, every state but South Dakota and New York had adopted some form of no-fault divorce (although some forms were not as easy to obtain as that in California).[53] South Dakota adopted no-fault divorce in 1985.[54] Until August 2010, New York still lacked a unilateral no-fault divorce statute; under New York divorce law, only if both parties executed and acknowledged a separation agreement and lived separately for one year could a judge convert it into a divorce. New York governor David Paterson signed a no-fault divorce bill on August 15, 2010. As of October 2010, no-fault divorce is allowed in all fifty states and the District of Columbia.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "No Fault Divorce Law & Legal Definition". Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  2. ^ "No-fault divorce". Legal Information Institute. Cornell University Law School. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  3. ^ Phillips, Roderick (1988). Putting asunder : a history of divorce in western society. Cambridge University Press. pp. 200–201. ISBN 0521324343. OCLC 465843551.
  4. ^ Schachner, Jill (2010-11-01). "And Then There Was None". Retrieved 2017-03-24.
  5. ^ a b "The Russian Effort to Abolish Marriage". The Atlantic. July 1926. Retrieved 2017-03-24.
  6. ^ a b Bolas, Donald M. (1975). "No-Fault Divorce: Born in the Soviet Union?". J. Fam. L. 14.
  7. ^ Kay, Herma Hill (1987). "Equality and Difference: A Perspective on No-Fault Divorce and Its Aftermath". University of Cincinnati Law Review. 56 (1).
  8. ^ A Reminiscence About The Uniform Marriage and Divorce Act-and Some Reflections About Its Critics and Its Policies, Robert J. Levy, 44 BYU L. Rev. 43 (1991)
  9. ^ Katz, Sanford N. (1994). "Historical Perspective and Current Trends in the Legal Process of Divorce". Children and Divorce. 4 (1): 44–62. PMID 7922285.
  10. ^ Sanford N. Katz; John Eekelaar; Mavis Maclean (2000). Cross Currents: Family Law and Policy in the United States and England. Oxford University Press. pp. 351–352. ISBN 978-0-19-829944-8.
  11. ^ a b "Your Comment". The New York Times.
  12. ^ a b c Coontz, Stephanie (2010-06-16). "Divorce, No-Fault Style". The New York Times.
  13. ^ "New York's Moment for Divorce Reform". The New York Times. 2010-06-18.
  14. ^ a b "No-fault divorce? It's about time". 18 June 2010. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  15. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-02-08.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  16. ^ Allen, Douglas (22 June 2006). "An economic assessment of same-sex marriage laws" (PDF). Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy. 29. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  17. ^ Baskerville, Stephen (2009). "No-Fault Divorce Is Harmful". In Wilson, Mike (ed.). Divorce. Opposing Viewpoints. Detroit: Greenhaven Press. ISBN 978-0-7377-4204-6.
  18. ^ Baskerville, Stephen (1 March 2005). "The No-Blame Game: Why No-Fault Divorce Is Our Most Dangerous Social Experiment". Crisis Magazine. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  19. ^ "German Civil Code BGB, §1565". Retrieved 2019-02-20.
  20. ^ "Härtefallregelung bei Scheidung: Wann liegt unzumutbare Härte vor?". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-20.
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  23. ^ "Children Act 1989". 1989.
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  27. ^ Stair, Child and Family Law (Reissue), para. 600 (Online) Retrieved 25 August 2020
  28. ^ "An Overview of No Fault and Fault Divorce Law". FindLaw. Archived from the original on February 23, 2018. Retrieved September 20, 2018.
  29. ^ Wilcox, W. Bradford (Fall 2009). "The Evolution of Divorce". National Affairs. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  30. ^ Consumer Reports News (October 13, 2010). "Divorce, American-style: No-fault is now the law in all 50 states". Consumer Reports. Archived from the original on December 8, 2015. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
  31. ^ Bird, Beverly. "Which States Are No-Fault Divorce States?". Legal Zoom. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
  32. ^ Glaberson, William. "New Divorce Law Would Allow Couples to Tell the Truth". Retrieved 25 June 2018.
  33. ^ Trotta, Daniel (25 June 2010). "Proposed NY law could soon bring no-fault divorce". Reuters. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  34. ^ "750 ILCS 5/401". Retrieved 2021-06-13.
  35. ^ "Which States Are No-Fault Divorce States?". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  36. ^ Stein, David D. "Technical Info About Divorce in the U.S". Liaise Divorce Solutions. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  37. ^ De Burgh v. De Burgh, 39 Cal. 2d 858 (1952). In De Burgh, the trial judge found both spouses guilty of cruelty against each other which had been provoked by the acts of the other. Therefore, both spouses were guilty of recrimination and neither was entitled to a divorce. The Supreme Court of California took advantage of this case to invalidate the defense of recrimination through the expansive application of equitable doctrines like clean hands, and remanded for a new trial.
  38. ^ "Constitution of Alabama (1819), Article 6, Section 13". Retrieved 2017-03-24.
  39. ^ "Constitution of Alabama (1819), Article 4, Section 16". Retrieved 2017-03-24.
  40. ^ a b c Friedman, Lawrence M. (2002). American Law in the Twentieth Century. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 435–36.
  41. ^ In re: Marriage of McKim, 6 Cal. 3d 673 (1972) (Mosk, J., dissenting) opinion available online at
  42. ^ Clint McCullough, Nevada, 1987. Chapter 28. "Divorce was big business in Nevada. Hotels and a dozen dude ranches around Reno catered to the women who arrived almost daily to put a quick end to their marriages. It was even quicker for Nevadans, who didn't have to wait out the six‑week residency requirement. A couple could fight at breakfast and be divorced by dinner time."
  43. ^ Vernier, Chester. Section 80, "Proctors" of Divorce and Separation, Vol. 2 American Family Laws: A Comparative Study of the Family Law of the Forty-eight American States, Alaska, the District of Columbia, and Hawaii, (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1932), p. 93.
  44. ^ Bishop, Katherine. "Sweet Victory for Feminist Pioneer at Law School." The New York Times, 3 April 1992, sec. A, p. 19
  45. ^ a b Baskerville, Stephen (2007). Taken Into Custody – The War Against Fathers, Marriage and the Family. Cumberland House. p. 234.
  46. ^ Vosky, Denese Ashbaugh; Monroe, Pamela A. (Oct 2002). "The Effective Dates of No-Fault Divorce Laws in the 50 States" (PDF). Family Relations. 51 (4): 317–324. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3729.2002.00317.x. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
  47. ^ Johnson, Sharon. "No-Fault Divorce: 10 Years Later, Some Virtues, Some Flaws." New York Times, 30 March 1979, sec. A, p. 22.
  48. ^ "irreconcilable differences". Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  49. ^ "Divorce Reform in California" (PDF). California State Library. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  50. ^ a b c d e f g h Zuckman, Harvey L. "The American Bar Association Family Law Section v NCCUSL: Alienation, Separation and Forced Reconciliation over the Uniform Marriage and Divorce Act" (PDF). 24:61. Catholic University Law Review. Retrieved 2008-08-01. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  51. ^ Henry Trawick, Florida Pleading and Procedure, at p. _____
  52. ^ a b c Gibbs, Arnold J. (February 1974). "American Bar Association Section of Family Law Recommendation" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-08-12.
  53. ^ Gest, Ted. "Divorce: how the game is played now." U.S. News & World Report, 21 November 1983, pp. 39–42.
  54. ^ Layug, Christine. "The No-Fault and At-Fault Process of Divorce," 10 July 2008, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-10-13. Retrieved 2010-01-12.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)