Same-sex marriage legislation in the United States

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In response to court action in a number of states, the United States federal government and a number of state legislatures passed or attempted to pass legislation either prohibiting or allowing same-sex marriage or other types of same-sex unions.

On June 26, 2015, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in the case of Obergefell v. Hodges that a fundamental right to marry is guaranteed to same-sex couples by the Fourteenth Amendment, and that states must allow same-sex marriage.

Federal level[edit]

In 1996, the United States Congress passed and President Bill Clinton signed Public Law 104-199, the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA). Section 3 of DOMA defines "marriage" and "spouse" for purposes of both federal law and any ruling, regulation, or interpretation by an administrative bureau or agency of the United States government.[1] The impact of Section 2 of DOMA, which relieves jurisdictions within the United States of any obligation to recognize same-sex relationships legally established in any other jurisdiction, is less clear.[2]

On March 16, 2011, companion bills were introduced by House and Senate Democrats to repeal DOMA. The bills were named the Respect for Marriage Act (RFMA).[3]

In United States v. Windsor, the Supreme Court was asked to determine the constitutionality of Section 3 of DOMA, which defines marriage for federal purposes as the union of a man and a woman.[4] On June 26, 2013, the Supreme Court ruled by a 5-4 vote that the Section 3 of DOMA is unconstitutional.[5]

The State Marriage Defense Act, introduced in the House of Representatives on January 9, 2014, would require the federal government to recognize the validity of a marriage based on a person's legal residence (place of domicile), rather than on the validity of the marriage when and where it was solemnized (place of celebration). The Obama administration has generally used the latter standard. Its sponsors described it as a way to clarify the federal government's response to Windsor and restore the ability of the a state to control the definition of marriage within its borders.[6][7]

In Obergefell v. Hodges, the Supreme Court was asked to determine the constitutionality of state bans on same-sex marriage licenses as well as state bans on recognition of same-sex marriages from other states. On June 26, 2015, the court ruled by a 5-4 vote that the Fourteenth Amendment obliges states to license same-sex marriages and to recognize same-sex marriages from other states.[8]

State level[edit]

Efforts to enable same-sex unions[edit]

Votes by state legislatures to recognize various types of same-sex unions, sorted by date:

State Date Type of same-sex union Upper house Lower house Governor Final
outcome
Yes No Yes No
Flag of Washington, D.C..svg District of Columbia June 1992 Domestic partnership[9] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California September 1994 Domestic partnership[10][11] 21 17 41 26 Vetoed No No
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii March 1996 Domestic partnership[12] 14 11 Failed No No
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii June 1997 Reciprocal beneficiary relationship[13] 24 7 43 27 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California September 1998 Domestic partnership[14] 21 17 41 36 Vetoed No No
Flag of California.svg California October 1999 Domestic partnership[15] 23 13 41 38 Vetoed No No
Flag of California.svg California October 1999 Domestic partnership[16] 22 14 41 36 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Vermont.svg Vermont April 2000 Civil union[17] 19 11 79 68 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island July 2001 Domestic partnership[18] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California August 2001 Domestic partnership (expansion)[19] 22 12 41 27 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California October 2001 Domestic partnership (expansion)[20] 23 11 41 32 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York August 2002 Domestic partnership[21] Passed 147 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York August 2002 Domestic partnership (expansion)[22] Passed 147 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California September 2002 Domestic partnership (expansion)[23] 26 11 41 31 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California September 2002 Domestic partnership (expansion)[24] 23 13 43 27 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Washington, D.C..svg District of Columbia April 2003 Domestic partnership (expansion)[25] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California September 2003 Domestic partnership (expansion)[26] 23 14 41 33 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey January 2004 Domestic partnership[27] 23 9 41 28 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Maine.svg Maine April 2004 Domestic partnership[28] 18 14 84 58 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Washington, D.C..svg District of Columbia May 2004 Domestic partnership (expansion)[29] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California September 2004 Domestic partnership (expansion)[30] 23 12 46 29 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York September 2004 Domestic partnership (expansion)[31] Passed 141 1 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Washington, D.C..svg District of Columbia December 2004 Domestic partnership (expansion)[32] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Washington, D.C..svg District of Columbia January 2005 Domestic partnership (expansion)[33] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Connecticut.svg Connecticut April 2005 Civil union[34] 27 9 85 63 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland May 2005 Domestic partnership[35] 31 16 83 50 Vetoed No No
Flag of California.svg California June 2005 Marriage[36] Failed No No
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island June 2005 Domestic partnership (expansion)[37][38] Passed No No
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island July 2005 Domestic partnership (expansion)[39][40] Passed No No
Flag of California.svg California September 2005 Marriage[41] 21 15 41 35 Vetoed No No
Flag of California.svg California September 2005 Domestic partnership (expansion)[42] 23 15 47 28 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California September 2005 Domestic partnership (expansion)[43] 21 14 47 32 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Washington, D.C..svg District of Columbia December 2005 Domestic partnership (expansion)[44] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey January 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[45] 39 0 67 8 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Washington, D.C..svg District of Columbia January 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[46] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York March 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[47] Passed 96 25 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Maine.svg Maine April 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[48] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York June 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[49] 114 27 No No
Flag of New York.svg New York June 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[50] 116 27 No No
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island June 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[51][52] Passed Passed N/A4 Yes Yes
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island June 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[53][52] Passed Passed N/A4 Yes Yes
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island July 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[54][55] Passed Passed N/A4 Yes Yes
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island July 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[56][55] Passed Passed N/A4 Yes Yes
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island July 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[57][58] Passed Passed N/A4 Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California September 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[59] 24 15 46 29 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California September 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[60] 23 15 47 31 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey December 2006 Civil union[61] 23 12 56 19 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Washington, D.C..svg District of Columbia December 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[62] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire April 2007 Civil union[63] Failed No No
Flag of Washington.svg Washington April 2007 Registered domestic partnership[64] 28 19 63 35 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Oregon.svg Oregon May 2007 Domestic partnership[65] 21 9 34 26 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Maine.svg Maine May 2007 Domestic partnership (expansion)[66] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire May 2007 Civil union[67] 14 10 243 129 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Maine.svg Maine June 2007 Domestic partnership (expansion)[68] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Maine.svg Maine June 2007 Domestic partnership (expansion)[69] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York June 2007 Marriage[70] 85 61 No No
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island July 2007 Domestic partnership (expansion)[71][72] Passed Passed N/A4 Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California September 2007 Marriage[73] 22 15 42 34 Vetoed No No
Flag of California.svg California October 2007 Domestic partnership (expansion)[74] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island October 2007 Domestic partnership (expansion)[75][72] Passed Passed Vetoed 1 Yes Yes
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire January 2008 Contractual cohabitation[76] Failed No No
Flag of New York.svg New York January 2008 Domestic partnership (expansion)[77] Passed No No
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico February 2008 Domestic partnership[78] 33 31 No No
Flag of Washington.svg Washington March 2008 Registered domestic partnership (expansion)[79][80]' 29 20 62 32 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Maine.svg Maine March 2008 Domestic partnership (expansion)[81] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland April 2008 Domestic partnership[82] 86 51 No No
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland May 2008 Domestic partnership[83] 30 17 88 46 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland May 2008 Domestic partnership[84] 27 20 86 47 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Washington, D.C..svg District of Columbia May 2008 Domestic partnership (expansion)[85] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico February 2009 Domestic partnership[86] 17 25 No No
Flag of Vermont.svg Vermont April 2009 Marriage[87] 23 5 100 49 Vetoed 1 Yes Yes
Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado April 2009 Designated beneficiary agreement[88] 23 10 41 24 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Connecticut.svg Connecticut April 2009 Marriage (codification)[89] 28 7 100 44 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Maine.svg Maine May 2009 Marriage[90] 21 14 89 58 Signed No No2
Flag of Washington, D.C..svg District of Columbia May 2009 Marriage (recognition only)[91][92] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Washington.svg Washington May 2009 Registered domestic partnership (expansion)[93] 30 18 62 35 Signed Yes Yes3
Flag of Washington, D.C..svg District of Columbia May 2009 Domestic partnership (expansion)[94] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Maine.svg Maine May 2009 Domestic partnership (expansion)[95] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada May 2009 Domestic partnership[96][97] 14 7 28 14 Vetoed1 Yes Yes
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire June 2009 Marriage[98] 14 10 198 176 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Oregon.svg Oregon June 2009 Domestic partnership (expansion)[99] 27 0 41 8 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Wisconsin.svg Wisconsin June 2009 Domestic partnership 17 16 50 48 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York August 2009 Domestic partnership (expansion)[100] Passed 142 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California October 2009 Out-of-state pre-proposition 8 marriage recognition[101] 24 14 44 27 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York December 2009 Marriage[102] 24 38 89 52 No No
Flag of Washington, D.C..svg District of Columbia December 2009 Marriage[103] N/A 11 2 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island January 2010 Domestic partnership (expansion)[104][105] Passed Passed Vetoed 1 Yes Yes
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island January 2010 Domestic partnership (expansion)[106][107] Passed Passed Vetoed 1 Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York January 2010 Domestic partnership (expansion)[108][109] 61 0 142 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey January 2010 Marriage[110] 14 20 No No
Flag of New York.svg New York March 2010 Domestic partnership (expansion)[111] 119 20 No No
Flag of New York.svg New York March 2010 Domestic partnership (expansion)[112][113] Passed 137 5 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York April 2010 Domestic partnership (expansion)[114][115] 132 9 No No
Flag of Minnesota.svg Minnesota May 2010 Domestic partnership (only 1 entitlement)[116] 41 24 78 55 Vetoed No No
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii July 2010 Civil union[117] 18 7 31 20 Vetoed No No
Flag of New York.svg New York August 2010 Committed partnership[118][119] 50 11 107 26 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California September 2010 Domestic partnership (expansion)[120] 23 12 53 24 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Illinois.svg Illinois January 2011 Civil union[121][122][123] 32 24 61 52 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii February 2011 Civil union[124] 18 5 31 19 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire March 2011 Domestic union[125] Failed No No
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland March 2011 Marriage[126][127] 25 21 No No
Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado March 2011 Civil union[128][129] 23 12 No No
Flag of Washington.svg Washington April 2011 Recognition of out-of-state union as registered domestic partnership[130] 28 19 58 39 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada May 2011 Recognition of out-of-state union as domestic partnership[131] 21 0 41 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Washington.svg Washington May 2011 Registered domestic partnership (expansion)[132] 27 21 57 40 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Delaware.svg Delaware May 2011 Civil union[133] 13 6 26 15 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada May 2011 Domestic partnership (expansion)[134] 11 10 No No
Flag of New York.svg New York June 2011 Marriage[135] 33 29 80 63 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island July 2011 Civil union[136] 21 16 62 11 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California September 2011 Domestic partnership (expansion)[137] 22 13 52 25 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California October 2011 Domestic partnership (expansion)[138] 25 15 Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California October 2011 Domestic partnership (expansion)[139] 24 13 Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Washington.svg Washington February 2012 Marriage[140] 28 21 55 43 Signed Yes Yes3
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey February 2012 Marriage[141] 24 16 42 33 Vetoed No No
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland March 2012 Marriage[142] 25 22 72 67 Signed Yes Yes3
Flag of New York.svg New York April 2012 Domestic partnership (expansion)[143] 129 10 No No
Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado May 2012 Civil union[144] 23 12 No No
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey August 2012 Civil union and domestic partnership (expansion: surrogacy)[145] 21 11 41 33 Vetoed No No
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming January 2013 Domestic partnership[146] 24 35 No No
Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado March 2013 Civil union[147] 21 14 39 26 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island May 2013 Marriage[148][149] 26 12 56 15 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Delaware.svg Delaware May 2013 Marriage[150] 12 9 23 18 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Minnesota.svg Minnesota May 2013 Marriage[151] 37 30 75 59 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada June 2013 Domestic partnership (expansion)[152] 21 0 41 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii November 2013 Marriage[153] 19 4 30 19 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Illinois.svg Illinois November 2013 Marriage[154][155] 32 21 61 54 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York February 2014 Marriage (codification)[156][157] 125 10 No No
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming February 2014 Marriage[158] 17 41 No No
Flag of New York.svg New York April 2014 Domestic partnership (expansion)[159][160] 124 14 No No
Flag of California.svg California July 2014 Marriage (statutory codification)[161][162][163] 25 10 51 11 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia February 2015 Marriage (statutory codification)[164][165][166] 20 18 No No
Flag of Utah.svg Utah March 2015 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[167] 26 0 39 30 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico April 2015 Marriage (partial codification)[168][169] 35 5 37 10 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada June 2015 Domestic partnership (expansion)[170] 21 0 42 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada June 2015 Domestic partnership (expansion)[171] 19 0 41 1 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey June 2015 Marriage, civil union and domestic partnership (expansion: surrogacy)[172] 21 13 43 25 Vetoed No No
Flag of Maine.svg Maine June 2015 Marriage (expansion)[173] 35 0 141 0 Vetoed1 Yes Yes
Flag of Oregon.svg Oregon July 2015 Marriage (statutory codification)[174] 18 11 40 18 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Guam.svg Guam August 2015 Marriage (codification)[175][176][177] N/A 13 2 N/A4 Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York September 2015 Marriage (codification)[178][179] 60 0 146 1 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Washington, D.C..svg District of Columbia December 2015 Domestic partnership (expansion)[180] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Oregon.svg Oregon March 2016 Marriage (statutory codification)[181][182] 18 11 43 13 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York March 2016 Marriage (codification)[183][184] 129 12 No No
Flag of New York.svg New York April 2016 Domestic partnership (expansion)[185] 120 15 No No
Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado June 2016 Conversion of civil union into marriage[186][187] 34 0 52 13 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of North Carolina.svg North Carolina June 2016 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[188] Passed No No
Flag of California.svg California July 2016 Marriage and domestic partnership (statutory codification)[189][190] 34 0 63 1 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of North Dakota.svg North Dakota January 2017 Marriage (statutory codification)[191][192] 15 31 No No
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico February 2017 Marriage (partial codification)[193][194] 63 0 No No
Flag of Utah.svg Utah March 2017 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[195] 26 0 74 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Utah.svg Utah March 2017 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[196] 29 0 69 3 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Utah.svg Utah March 2017 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[197] 27 0 68 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland May 2017 Domestic partnership (expansion)[198] 138 2 45 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada May 2017 Marriage (statutory codification)[199] 20 1 28 10 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada June 2017 Domestic partnership (expansion)[200] 21 0 41 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York June 2017 Marriage (codification)[201] 62 0 139 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey June 2017 Marriage, civil union and domestic partnership (expansion: surrogacy)[202] 22 15 No No
Flag of North Carolina.svg North Carolina July 2017 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[203] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Maine.svg Maine July 2017 Marriage (codification)[204] Passed Passed N/A4 Yes Yes
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland January 2018 Domestic partnership (expansion)[205] 135 2 45 1 Vetoed No No
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico February 2018 Marriage (partial codification)[206] 60 2 No No
Flag of New York.svg New York March 2018 Marriage (codification)[207] 129 6 No No
Flag of Utah.svg Utah March 2018 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[208] 27 0 70 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Utah.svg Utah March 2018 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[209] 23 0 73 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Utah.svg Utah March 2018 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[210] 23 4 44 24 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Utah.svg Utah March 2018 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[211] 25 3 45 26 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York April 2018 Domestic partnership (expansion)[212] 114 17 No No
Flag of Minnesota.svg Minnesota May 2018 Marriage (codification)[213] 34 33 78 50 Vetoed No No
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey May 2018 Marriage, civil union and domestic partnership (expansion: surrogacy)[214] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York June 2018 Marriage (codification)[215] 57 4 No No
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire June 2018 Marriage (equalization of marriageable age)[216] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Arkansas.svg Arkansas March 2019 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[217] 35 0 96 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Nebraska.svg Nebraska March 2019 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[218] N/A 38 6 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico March 2019 Marriage (partial codification)[219] 53 2 No No
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia March 2019 Marriage (expansion: surrogacy)[220] 28 12 63 36 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico March 2019 Marriage (partial codification)[221] 32 8 40 25 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Nebraska.svg Nebraska March 2019 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[222] N/A 45 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Utah.svg Utah March 2019 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[223] 22 2 55 6 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Utah.svg Utah March 2019 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[224] 29 0 69 4 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico April 2019 Marriage (partial codification)[225] 39 0 62 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland May 2019 Marriage (expansion)[226] 34 10 121 15 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland May 2019 Marriage (expansion)[227] 31 14 133 6 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Oklahoma.svg Oklahoma May 2019 Marriage (expansion: surrogacy)[228] 33 10 84 6 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Nebraska.svg Nebraska May 2019 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[229] N/A 40 3 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Nebraska.svg Nebraska May 2019 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[230] N/A 33 8 Vetoed No No
Flag of Minnesota.svg Minnesota May 2019 Marriage (codification)[231][232] 52 15 74 50 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island June 2019 Marriage (expansion)[233] 35 0 No No
Flag of Maine.svg Maine June 2019 Marriage (codification)[234] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Delaware.svg Delaware July 2019 Marriage (codification)[235] 20 1 37 4 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York October 2019 Marriage (codification)[236] 61 0 121 23 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii December 2019 Marriage and civil union (codification)[237] Passed No No
Flag of New York.svg New York December 2019 Domestic partnership (expansion)[238][239] 59 0 122 24 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire January 2020 Marriage (codification)[240] Failed No No
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico February 2020 Marriage (partial codification)[241] 42 0 64 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Nebraska.svg Nebraska February 2020 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[242] N/A 47 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico February 2020 Marriage (partial codification)[243] 40 0 67 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia March 2020 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[244] 28 12 63 34 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia March 2020 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[245] 25 13 62 38 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia March 2020 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[246] 33 6 58 42 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Utah.svg Utah March 2020 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[247] 24 1 70 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Utah.svg Utah March 2020 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[248] 27 0 71 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia April 2020 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[249] 39 1 91 6 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York April 2020 Marriage (expansion)[250][251] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia April 2020 Marriage (statutory codification)[252] 24 16 53 43 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York April 2020 Domestic partnership (expansion)[253][254] 62 0 131 11 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg Puerto Rico June 2020 Marriage (codification)[255][256] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of North Carolina.svg North Carolina June 2020 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[257] 47 0 Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire July 2020 Marriage (codification)[258] Passed 209 119 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island July 2020 Marriage (expansion)[259] 34 1 64 1 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island July 2020 Marriage (expansion)[260] 36 1 67 1 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada May 2017 Marriage (constitutional codification)[261][262] 19 2 27 14 N/A Yes Yes
May 2019 19 2 38 2
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia February 2021 Marriage (constitutional codification)[263][264] 24 12 60 33 Advanced Yes Yes
2022
Flag of Nebraska.svg Nebraska 2021 Marriage (constitutional codification)[265] N/A Pending
Flag of Florida.svg Florida 2021 Marriage (statutory codification)[266] Pending Pending
Flag of Massachusetts.svg Massachusetts 2020 Marriage (expansion)[267][268] Pending Pending
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey 2020 Marriage and civil union (partial codification)[269] Pending

Notes:

Efforts to prohibit same-sex unions[edit]

Votes by state legislatures to prohibit recognition of various types of same-sex unions, sorted by date:

State Date Type of same-sex union Upper House Lower house Governor Final
outcome1
Yes No Yes No
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland May 1973 Marriage[270] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes2
Flag of Texas.svg Texas June 1973 Marriage[271][272] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Oklahoma.svg Oklahoma February 1975 Marriage[273] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Arizona.svg Arizona April 1975 Marriage[274] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia August 1975 Marriage[275] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes2
Flag of Utah.svg Utah April 1977 Marriage[276] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Florida.svg Florida June 1977 Marriage[277][278][279] 37 0 101 11 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Illinois.svg Illinois June 1977 Marriage[280] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes2
Flag of California.svg California August 1977 Marriage[281] 23 5 68 2 Signed Yes Yes2
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming October 1977 Marriage[282] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Wisconsin.svg Wisconsin July 1979 Marriage[283] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire July 1987 Marriage[284][285] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes2
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire March 1994 Recognition of out-of-state marriage[286] 11 12 No No
Flag of Guam.svg Guam May 1994 Marriage[287] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes2
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii June 1994 Marriage[288] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes2
Flag of Utah.svg Utah March 1995 Marriage[289] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of South Dakota.svg South Dakota January 1996 Marriage[290][291][292] 26 8 49 18 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Idaho.svg Idaho February 1996 Marriage[291][293] 24 6 66 4 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Idaho.svg Idaho March 1996 Recognition of out-of-state marriage[294] 28 4 59 6 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado March 1996 Marriage[295] Passed Passed Vetoed No No
Flag of Kansas.svg Kansas April 1996 Marriage[291][296] 39 1 87 38 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg Georgia April 1996 Marriage[290][291][297] 47 0 135 10 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Arizona.svg Arizona May 1996 Marriage[290][291][298] 21 9 50 5 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Alaska.svg Alaska May 1996 Marriage and civil union[291][299][300] 16 3 31 9 N/A3 Yes Yes
Flag of Illinois.svg Illinois May 1996 Marriage[301][302] 42 9 87 17 Signed Yes Yes2
Flag of Tennessee.svg Tennessee May 1996 Marriage[290][291] Passed 90 1 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of South Carolina.svg South Carolina May 1996 Marriage[303][304] Passed 82 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Michigan.svg Michigan June 1996 Marriage[305][306] 31 2 88 14 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Michigan.svg Michigan June 1996 Recognition of out-of-state marriage[305][306] Passed 74 28 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Delaware.svg Delaware June 1996 Marriage[307] 17 3 39 0 Signed Yes Yes2
Flag of North Carolina.svg North Carolina June 1996 Marriage and recognition of out-of-state marriage[308][309][310] 41 4 98 10 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Missouri.svg Missouri July 1996 Marriage[311] 29 2 131 10 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California August 1996 Marriage[312] 20 21 Passed No No
Flag of Oklahoma.svg Oklahoma September 1996 Marriage[290][291] 42 2 99 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Pennsylvania.svg Pennsylvania October 1996 Marriage[313][314] 43 5 189 13 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Mississippi.svg Mississippi February 1997 Marriage[315] 50 0 118 3 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Arkansas.svg Arkansas February 1997 Marriage[290][316] 34 0 92 2 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of North Dakota.svg North Dakota February 1997 Marriage[290][317] 43 6 73 18 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Texas.svg Texas February 1997 Marriage[315][318] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Washington.svg Washington February 1997 Marriage[319] 33 15 63 35 Vetoed No No
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia March 1997 Recognition of out-of-state marriage[290][320] 40 0 87 9 Signed Yes Yes2
Flag of Maine.svg Maine March 1997 Marriage[321] 24 10 106 39 N/A3 Yes Yes2
Flag of Indiana.svg Indiana April 1997 Marriage[322][323] 38 10 85 9 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Montana.svg Montana April 1997 Marriage and civil union[290][324] 45 5 73 23 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Florida.svg Florida May 1997 Recognition of out-of-state marriage and civil union[290][325] 33 5 97 19 N/A3 Yes Yes
Flag of Minnesota.svg Minnesota June 1997 Marriage[291][326] 64 0 108 20 Signed Yes Yes2
Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado June 1997 Marriage[327] Passed Passed Vetoed No No
Flag of Washington.svg Washington February 1998 Marriage[328][329] 34 11 65 28 Vetoed 4 Yes Yes2
Flag of Kentucky.svg Kentucky April 1998 Marriage and recognition out-of-state marriage[291][330] 32 2 84 9 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Alabama.svg Alabama May 1998 Marriage[331] 30 0 79 12 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii November 1998 Marriage[290] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes2
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg Puerto Rico March 1999 Marriage[332] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Louisiana.svg Louisiana July 1999 Marriage and recognition of out-of-state marriage[333] 32 0 95 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of West Virginia.svg West Virginia March 2000 Marriage[334] Passed 96 3 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire March 2000 Recognition of out-of-state marriage[335] 128 232 No No
Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado May 2000 Marriage[336] Passed 37 28 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire March 2001 Recognition of out-of-state civil union[337] 88 276 No No
Flag of Missouri.svg Missouri July 2001 Marriage[338] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of American Samoa.svg American Samoa March 2003 Marriage[339] Failed No No
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire March 2003 Recognition of out-of-state civil union[340] Failed No No
Flag of Texas.svg Texas May 2003 Recognition of out-of-state same-sex marriage and civil union[341] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Wisconsin.svg Wisconsin November 2003 Marriage[342][343] 22 10 68 29 Vetoed No No
Flag of Ohio.svg Ohio February 2004 Marriage, recognition of out-of-state marriage, and civil union[290][344] 72 22 18 15 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Utah.svg Utah March 2004 Civil union[290] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia April 2004 Civil union[290][345] 27 12 69 30 N/A3 Yes Yes2
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire May 2004 Recognition of out-of-state marriage[346] 16 7 215 137 Signed Yes Yes2
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming February 2007 Recognition of out-of-state marriage[347] 21 8 No No
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire March 2008 Recognition of out-of-state union[348] Failed No No
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire March 2009 Civil union[349] 136 205 No No
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire February 2010 Marriage[350][351] 109 210 No No
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming March 2011 Recognition of out-of-state marriage[352] 14 16 31 28 No No
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire March 2012 Marriage[353] 116 211 No No
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming February 2014 Recognition of out-of-state marriage[158] 29 31 No No

Notes:

  • 1 On June 26, 2015, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in the case of Obergefell v. Hodges that a fundamental right to marry is guaranteed to same-sex couples by the Fourteenth Amendment, and that states must allow same-sex marriage.
  • 2 Subsequently repealed.
  • 3 The bill was allowed to lapse into law.
  • 4 Veto overridden.

Attempts to establish same-sex unions via initiative or statewide referendum[edit]

State Intended date Same-sex union Description Outcome
Flag of Maine.svg Maine November 2012 Marriage Initiative to establish same-sex marriage.[354] Yes Yes

Efforts to enable ban amendment[edit]

State Date Type of same-sex union Upper House Lower house Final
outcome
Yes No Yes No
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii 1998 Marriage ban permitted Passed Passed Placed on Ballot
November 1998 Referendum (69.18%) Yes Yes
Flag of Alaska.svg Alaska 1998 Same-sex marriage 14 6 28 12 Placed on Ballot
November 1998 Referendum (68.1%) Yes Yes
Flag of Indiana.svg Indiana February 2004 Same-sex marriage[355] 42 7 No No
Flag of Missouri.svg Missouri 2004 Same-sex marriage Passed Passed Placed on Ballot
August 2004 Referendum (70.6%) Yes Yes
Flag of Louisiana.svg Louisiana May/June 2004 Same-sex marriage and civil unions 31 6 64 29 No No
87 11 Placed on Ballot
September 2004 Referendum (77.79%) Yes Yes
Flag of Mississippi.svg Mississippi 2004 Same-sex marriage Passed Passed Placed on Ballot
November 2004 Referendum (86.01%) Yes Yes
Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg Georgia February/March 2004 Same-sex marriage and civil unions 40 14 117 50 No No
122 52 Placed on Ballot
November 2004 Referendum (76.2%) Yes Yes
Flag of Utah.svg Utah March 2004 Same-sex marriage and civil unions[356] 20 7 58 14 Placed on Ballot
November 2004 Referendum (65.86%) Yes Yes
Flag of Kentucky.svg Kentucky April 2004 Same-sex marriage and civil unions[357][358] 33 5 85 11 Placed on Ballot
November 2004 Referendum (74.55%) Yes Yes
Flag of Oklahoma.svg Oklahoma April 2004 Same-sex marriage and civil unions 26 19 92 4 Placed on Ballot
November 2004 Referendum (75.58%) Yes Yes
Flag of Kansas.svg Kansas January/February 2005 Same-sex marriage and civil unions 28 11 86 37 Placed on Ballot
April 2005 Referendum (69.94%) Yes Yes
Flag of Texas.svg Texas May 2005 Same-sex marriage and civil unions[359] 21 8 101 29 Placed on Ballot
November 2005 Referendum (76.25%) Yes Yes
Flag of Alabama.svg Alabama March 2005 Same-sex marriage and civil unions 30 0 85 7 Placed on Ballot
June 2006 Referendum (81.2%) Yes Yes
Flag of South Carolina.svg South Carolina 2005 Same-sex marriage and civil unions Passed Passed Placed on Ballot
November 2006 Referendum (77.97%) Yes Yes
Flag of South Dakota.svg South Dakota February 2005 Same-sex marriage and civil unions 20 14 55 14 Placed on Ballot
November 2006 Referendum (51.83%) Yes Yes
Flag of Wisconsin.svg Wisconsin March 2004 Same-sex marriage and civil unions 20 13 68 27 Advanced
February 2006 19 14 62 31 Placed on Ballot
November 2006 Referendum (59.4%) Yes Yes
Flag of Tennessee.svg Tennessee May 2004 Same-sex marriage 28 1 85 5 Advanced
March 2005 29 3 88 7 Placed on Ballot
November 2006 Referendum (81.25%) Yes Yes
Flag of Idaho.svg Idaho February 2006 Same-sex marriage and civil unions[360] 26 9 53 17 Placed on Ballot
November 2006 Referendum (63.4%) Yes Yes
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia March 2006 All types of same-sex unions[361] 28 11 85 12 Placed on Ballot
November 2006 Referendum (57.06%) Yes Yes1
Flag of Pennsylvania.svg Pennsylvania June 2006 Same-sex marriage[362] 38 12 136 61 Advanced
2007/2008 No No
Flag of Arizona.svg Arizona May/June 2008 Same-sex marriage 14 11 35 25 No No
16 4 Placed on Ballot
November 2008 Referendum (56.2%) Yes Yes
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming February 2009 Same-sex marriage[363] 25 35 No No
Flag of West Virginia.svg West Virginia March 2009 Same-sex marriage[364] 30 67 No No
Flag of Indiana.svg Indiana January 2010 Same-sex marriage and civil unions[365] 38 10 No No
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire February 2010 Same-sex marriage[366] 135 201 No No
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming January 2011 Same-sex marriage[367] 20 10 No No
Flag of Iowa.svg Iowa February 2011 Same-sex marriage 62 37 No No
Flag of North Carolina.svg North Carolina September 2011 Same-sex marriage and civil unions[368] 30 16 75 42 Placed on Ballot
May 2012 Referendum (61.04%) Yes Yes
Flag of Minnesota.svg Minnesota May 2011 Same-sex marriage[369] 37 27 70 62 Placed on Ballot
November 2012 Referendum (47.44%) No No
Flag of Indiana.svg Indiana March 2011 Same-sex marriage and civil unions[355] 40 10 70 26 No No, Bill was amended
Flag of Indiana.svg Indiana February 2014 Same-sex marriage[370][371] 32 17 57 40 Advanced
2015 No No


Notes:

  • 1 Subsequently repealed.

Efforts to ban same-sex unions by constitutional amendment[edit]

The following table shows all popular vote results regarding state constitutional amendments concerning same-sex marriage, and in some cases civil unions and domestic partnerships. The Hawaii amendment is different in that it granted the legislature authority to "reserve marriage to opposite-sex couples" (which the legislature had already done).

State Initiative Ban on Date Yes Yes vote No No vote Total votes Voter turnout Electorate Final
outcome1
Votes Percentage Votes Percentage
Flag of Alabama.svg Alabama Amendment 774 Marriage and
civil union
June 6, 2006 697,591 81.2% 161,694 18.8% 859,285 25.73% 3,338,467 Yes Yes
Flag of Alaska.svg Alaska Ballot Measure 2 Marriage November 3, 1998 152,965 68.1% 71,631 31.9% 224,596 50.11% 453,332 Yes Yes
Flag of Arizona.svg Arizona Proposition 107 Marriage and
civil union
November 7, 2006 721,789 48.2% 775,498 51.8% 1,496,987 38.15% 3,923,786 No No
Flag of Arizona.svg Arizona Proposition 102 Marriage November 4, 2008 1,258,355 56.2% 980,753 43.8% 2,239,078 55.33% 2,987,451 Yes Yes
Flag of Arkansas.svg Arkansas Constitutional Amendment 3 Marriage and
civil union
November 2, 2004 753,770 74.95% 251,914 25.04% 1,005,684 51.07% 1,969,208 Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California Proposition 8 Marriage November 4, 2008 7,001,084 52.24% 6,401,482 47.76% 13,743,177 61.73% 22,261,504 Yes Yes2
Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado Amendment 43 Marriage November 7, 2006 855,126 55.02% 699,030 44.98% 1,554,156 47.13% 3,297,308 Yes Yes
Flag of Florida.svg Florida Amendment 2 Marriage and
civil union
November 4, 2008 4,890,883 61.92% 3,008,026 38.08% 8,456,329 66.65% 12,687,407 Yes Yes
Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg Georgia Constitutional Amendment 1 Marriage and
civil union
November 2, 2004 2,454,930 76.2% 768,716 23.8% 3,223,646 54.84% 5,878,186 Yes Yes
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii Constitutional Amendment 2 Marriage ban
permitted
November 3, 1998 285,384 69.18% 117,827 28.56% 403,211 Yes Yes3
Flag of Idaho.svg Idaho Amendment 2 Marriage and
civil union
November 7, 2006 282,386 63.4% 163,384 36.6% 445,770 49.04% 908,925 Yes Yes
Flag of Kansas.svg Kansas Proposed amendment 1 Marriage and
civil union
April 5, 2005 417,675 69.94% 179,432 30.06% 597,107 Yes Yes
Flag of Kentucky.svg Kentucky Constitutional Amendment 1 Marriage and
civil union
November 2, 2004 1,222,125 74.55% 417,097 25.45% 1,639,222 53.6% 3,057,741 Yes Yes
Flag of Louisiana.svg Louisiana Constitutional Amendment 1 Marriage and
civil union
September 18, 2004 619,908 77.79% 177,067 22.21% 796,975 25.04% 3,182,762 Yes Yes
Flag of Michigan.svg Michigan State Proposal - 04-2 All types of same-sex unions4 November 2, 2004 2,698,077 58.63% 1,904,319 41.37% 4,602,396 63.36% 7,263,024 Yes Yes
Flag of Minnesota.svg Minnesota Amendment 1 Marriage November 6, 2012 1,399,916 47.44% 1,550,864 52.56% 2,950,780 76.11% 3,876,752 No No
Flag of Mississippi.svg Mississippi Amendment 1 Marriage November 2, 2004 957,104 86.01% 155,648 13.99% 1,112,752 53.78% 2,068,766 Yes Yes
Flag of Missouri.svg Missouri Constitutional Amendment 2 Marriage August 3, 2004 1,055,771 70.6% 439,529 29.4% 1,495,300 35.76% 4,180,960 Yes Yes
Flag of Montana.svg Montana Initiative 96 Marriage November 2, 2004 295,070 66.55% 148,263 33.45% 443,333 63.41% 699,114 Yes Yes
Flag of Nebraska.svg Nebraska Initiative Measure 416 All types of same-sex unions November 7, 2000 450,07 70.36% 189,555 29.64% 639,628 52.24% 1,224,178 Yes Yes
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada Question 2 Marriage November 7, 2000 412,688 69.62% 180,077 30.38% 592,765 44.03% 1,346,116 Yes Yes6
Question 2 Marriage November 7, 2002 337,197 67.20% 164,573 32.80% 501,770 42.61% 1,391,100 Yes Yes6
Flag of North Carolina.svg North Carolina Amendment 1 Marriage and
civil union
May 8, 2012 1,317,178 61.04% 840,802 38.96% 2,157,980 34.66% 6,296,759 Yes Yes
Flag of North Dakota.svg North Dakota Constitutional Measure 1 Marriage and
civil union
November 2, 2004 223,572 73.23% 81,716 26.77% 305,288 63.24% 482,722 Yes Yes
Flag of Ohio.svg Ohio State Issue 1 Marriage and
civil union
November 2, 2004 3,329,335 61.71% 2,065,462 38.29% 5,394,797 64.01% 8,427,696 Yes Yes
Flag of Oklahoma.svg Oklahoma State Question 711 Marriage and
civil union
November 2, 2004 1,075,216 75.58% 347,303 24.42% 1,422,519 56.65% 2,510,823 Yes Yes
Flag of Oregon.svg Oregon Measure 36 Marriage November 2, 2004 1,028,546 56.63% 787,556 43.37% 1,816,102 71.19% 2,550,887 Yes Yes
Flag of South Carolina.svg South Carolina Amendment 1 Marriage and
civil union
November 7, 2006 829,360 77.97% 234,316 22.03% 1,063,676 33.74% 3,152,046 Yes Yes
Flag of South Dakota.svg South Dakota Amendment C All types of same-sex unions November 7, 2006 172,305 51.83% 160,152 48.17% 332,457 57.26% 580,592 Yes Yes
Flag of Tennessee.svg Tennessee Amendment 1 Marriage November 7, 2006 1,419,434 81.3% 327,536 18.7% 1,746,970 39.4% 4,433,921 Yes Yes
Flag of Texas.svg Texas Proposition 2 Marriage and
civil union
November 8, 2005 1,723,782 76.25% 536,913 23.74% 2,260,695 17.97% 12,577,545 Yes Yes
Flag of Utah.svg Utah Constitutional Amendment 3 Marriage and
civil union
November 2, 2004 593,297 65.86% 307,488 34.14% 900,785 57.21% 1,574,463 Yes Yes5
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia Marshall-Newman Amendment All types of same-sex unions November 7, 2006 1,328,537 57.06% 999,687 42.94% 2,328,224 43.23% 5,385,522 Yes Yes
Flag of Wisconsin.svg Wisconsin Referendum 1 Marriage and
civil union
November 7, 2006 1,264,310 59.4% 862,924 40.6% 2,127,234 52.33% 4,064,432 Yes Yes

Notes:

  • 1 On June 26, 2015, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in the case of Obergefell v. Hodges that a fundamental right to marry is guaranteed to same-sex couples by the Fourteenth Amendment, and that states must allow same-sex marriage.
  • 2 On June 26, 2013, the United States Supreme Court ruled that supporters of the measure did not have standing in federal court to defend the August 2010 ruling by Northern District of California's Chief Judge Vaughn Walker that the amendment was unconstitutional under both the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment, effectively killing the ballot initiative.
  • 3 Does not explicitly define marriage, but allows the legislature to define marriage.
  • 4 On June 28, 2013, U.S. District Judge David M. Lawson issued a preliminary injunction blocking the state from enforcing its law banning local governments and school districts from offering health benefits to their employees' domestic partners.[372][373]
  • 5 On December 20, 2013, Judge Robert J. Shelby of Federal District Court for the District of Utah, issued a 53-page ruling that said Utah's law, which was passed by voters in 2004, violated the US Constitutional rights of gay and lesbian couples to due process and equal protection under the 14th Amendment.[374]
  • 6 Subsequently repealed.

Post-Obergefell attempts to repeal constitutional amendments banning same-sex unions[edit]

State Date Type of same-sex union Upper House Lower house Final
outcome
Yes No Yes No
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada 2017 Same-sex marriage 19 2 27 14 Advanced
March/May 2019 19 2 37 2 Placed on Ballot
November 2020 Referendum (62.4%) Yes Yes
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia February 2021 Same-sex marriage, civil union and any marriage-like contract between unmarried persons 24 12 60 33 Advanced
2022

Proposed attempts to constitutionally block same-sex unions[edit]

State 2000s 2010s 2014 Details
Flag of Delaware.svg Delaware 2009 A proposed constitutional amendment, Senate Bill 27, to ban same-sex marriage failed.[375] Failed Failed
Flag of Indiana.svg Indiana 2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2014 On February 15, 2011, the Indiana House approved a ban on civil unions and marriage (70-26). The bill passed the Indiana Senate by a 40-10 vote. According to state law, the bill must now be approved by the next, separately elected legislature before voters will see the measure on the 2014 ballot.[376] On January 27, 2014, the Indiana House voted 52-43 to remove the ban on civil unions from the proposed measure.[377] On January 28, 2014, the Indiana House voted 57-40 in favor of the amended measure.[378] On February 17, 2014, the Indiana Senate voted 32-17 approving the House-amended version of the ban on gay marriage. The measure will now need to be approved by the next, separately elected legislature before voters are allowed to decide its fate in 2016.[379] Failed Failed
Flag of Iowa.svg Iowa 2004
2005
2010
2011
After the Iowa Supreme Court made same-sex marriage legal in 2009, a backlash quickly developed that resulted in three of the justices losing their seats in the 2010 election. Additionally, Republicans took control of the House and fell one seat short of taking over the Senate. For a proposed constitutional amendment to come before Iowa voters, it has to be approved in exactly the same form by two consecutive general assemblies.[380] Failed Failed
Flag of Minnesota.svg Minnesota 2004
2005
2006
2007
2009
2011 A bill was sponsored in 2009 but failed to be brought up for a vote. An amendment was introduced again in 2011. The House and Senate bills passed.[381][382] Both are referred to other area.[clarification needed] The bill would have been approved by majority by both the Senate and house by May 23, 2011.[clarification needed] On May 11, 2011, the Senate passed the bill 38-27.[383] On May 22, 2011, an amendment was passed in the house by a vote of 70-62, and was placed on the ballot in the November 2012 election.[384] Failed Failed
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire 2006
2007
2010 On February 17, 2010, a proposed constitutional amendment failed in the house by a 201-135 margin.[385][386] Constitutional amendments in New Hampshire require two-thirds approval from voters. Failed Failed
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey 2006
2007
2008
2010 Bills to place an amendment on the ballot have all failed in the House or Senate Judiciary Committee. Failed Failed
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico 2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2013
2014 A joint resolution was prefiled in the New Mexico legislature for the 2014 session.[387] The resolution would define marriage as one man and one woman for the state of New Mexico.[388] Failed Failed
Flag of Pennsylvania.svg Pennsylvania 2006
2008
2009
2010
2011
2013
A joint resolution was introduced in the house of representatives with record low sponsorship on May 8, 2013. The bill would ban same-sex marriages and civil unions. Pennsylvania would become the first northeastern state with a marriage amendment. According to state law, the amendment must receive a majority vote from both chambers of the legislature in two consecutive sessions before voters are allowed to decide its fate. The soonest voters could see the measure is in 2015.[389][390] Failed Failed
Flag of West Virginia.svg West Virginia 2009 2010
2011
West Virginia senators proposed a constitutional amendment for the 2010 ballot that would have defined marriage as "a union between and man and a woman". The amendment was defeated.[391][392] Another proposition was introduced in January 2011[393] but failed to advance. Failed Failed
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming 2009 2011 In 2009, the house of representatives considered an amendment to the state constitution, House Joint Resolution 17 (also known as the "Defense of Marriage" resolution), defining marriage as a union between a man and a woman. The measure was defeated in the house on February 6, with 35 votes against and 25 in favor. On January 27, 2011, the Senate approved an amendment,[394] but it died in the house.[395] Failed Failed

Efforts to ban same-sex unions by statute[edit]

The following consists of votes by statutory initiatives that ban same-sex marriage and/or civil unions and domestic partnerships:

State Date Yes Yes vote No No vote Description Final outcome
Flag of California.svg California March 2000 61% (4,618,673) 39% (2,909,370) Proposition 22. Amend the Family Code to say: Only marriage between a man and a woman is valid or recognized in California.[396]1 Yes Yes2 3

Notes:

  • 1 There is a debate as to whether the adoption of Prop 22 only prohibited California from recognizing same-sex marriages performed in other states.
  • 2 In March 2005, Judge Richard Kramer ruled there appeared to be no rational state compelling interest in limiting marriage to heterosexual couples. His ruling was appealed to the California Court of Appeal for the 1st District, which upheld Proposition 22 on October 5, 2006. The Supreme Court of California ruled on May 15, 2008, that Proposition 22 is unconstitutional and it was struck down by the state's highest court.
  • 3 Subsequently repealed by state legislature.

Lawsuits seeking to overturn statutory bans[edit]

The following lists cases seeking to overturn marriage bans:

State Case Date Vote for Vote against Description Restrictions unconstitutional? Final outcome
Flag of Minnesota.svg Minnesota Richard John Baker v. Gerald R. Nelson October 15, 1971 0 7 Minnesota Supreme Court ruled that Minnesota's marriage statute applied only to opposite-sex couples.[397] The case was appealed to the United States Supreme Court, but dismissed on October 10, 1972.[398] No No No No
Flag of Kentucky.svg Kentucky Jones v. Callahan November 9, 1973 0 7 Kentucky Court of Appeals ruled that Kentucky's marriage statute applied only to opposite-sex couples.[399] No No No No
Flag of Washington.svg Washington Singer v. Hara October 1974 Failed Washington Supreme Court refused to hear an appeal of same-sex couple who were denied a marriage license by their county clerk. Washington Court of Appeals's decision stating that state marriage statutes only applied to opposite-sex couples upheld.[400] No No No No
Flag of Washington, D.C..svg District of Columbia Dean v. District of Columbia' January 1995 0 9 District of Columbia Court of Appeals ruled that District's marriage statute applied only to opposite-sex couples.[401][402] No No No No
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii Baehr v. Miike December 9, 1999 0 5 Hawaii Supreme Court ruled on May 5, 1993, in a 3 in favor to 1 against decision, that state must provide a compelling interest to restricting marriage to opposite-sex couples. Remanded case to lower courts for trial on the subject. On December 3, 1996, Judge Chang ruled that the state had not established any compelling interest in denying same-sex couples the ability to marry and that, even if it had, it failed to prove that the Hawaii statute was narrowly tailored to avoid unnecessary abridgement of constitutional rights. He enjoined the state from refusing to issue marriage licenses to otherwise-qualified same-sex couples.[403] The following day Chang stayed his ruling, acknowledging the "legally untenable" position couples would be in should the Supreme Court reverse him on appeal.[404] Hawaii Supreme Court ruled that plaintiffs' arguments were moot in light of 1998 state constitutional amendment.[405] No No No No
Flag of Vermont.svg Vermont Baker v. Vermont December 20, 1999 5 0 Vermont Supreme Court rules that same-sex marriage or something similar must be implemented in 100 days.[406] Yes Yes Yes Legalized civil unions in Vermont by Vermont General Assembly
Flag of Alaska.svg Alaska Brause v. Alaska Dept of Health & Social Services April 17, 2001 0 5 Alaska Supreme Court ruled that plaintiffs' arguments were moot in light of 1998 state constitutional amendment.[407] No No No No
Flag of Massachusetts.svg Massachusetts Goodridge v. Department of Public Health November 18, 2003 4 3 Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court rules that same-sex marriages must be legal in 180 days.[408] Yes Yes Yes Legalized same-sex marriage in Massachusetts on May 17, 2004
Flag of Arizona.svg Arizona Harold Donald Standhardt and Tod Alan Keltner v. State of Arizona May 25, 2004 Failed Arizona Supreme Court refused to hear an appeal of a unanimous Arizona Appellate Court ruling upholding statutory marriage ban.[409][410] No No No No
Flag of Louisiana.svg Louisiana Forum for Equality v McKeithen January 19, 2005 0 7 District Judge William Morvant of Baton Rouge struck down the constitutional amendment on the grounds that it violated a provision of the state constitution requiring that an amendment cover only one subject. The Louisiana Supreme Court, however, upheld the constitutional amendment.[411] No No No No
Flag of Oregon.svg Oregon Mary Li and Rebecca Kennedy et al. v. State of Oregon et al. April 2005 0 7 Oregon Supreme Court ruled that plaintiffs' arguments were moot in light of 2004 state constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage.[412] No No No No
Flag of New York.svg New York Hernandez v. Robles July 6, 2006 2 4 New York Court of Appeals upheld New York's marriage statute did not allow same-sex marriage, and that there is no constitutional right to same-sex marriage.[413] No No No No
Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg Georgia Perdue v. O'Kelley July 7, 2006 0 7 On May 16, 2006, Constance C. Russell of Fulton County Superior Court struck down the constitutional amendment on the grounds that it violated a provision of the state constitution requiring that an amendment cover only one subject. The Georgia Supreme Court, however, upheld the constitutional amendment.[414] No No No No
Flag of Washington.svg Washington Andersen v. King County July 26, 2006 4 5 Washington Supreme Court upholds Washington's statute banning same-sex marriage.[415] No No No No
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey Lewis v. Harris October 25, 2006 7 0 New Jersey Supreme Court rules that same-sex marriage or something similar must be implemented in 100 days.[416] Yes Yes Yes Legalized civil unions in New Jersey by New Jersey General Assembly
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland Conaway v. Deane & Polyak September 2007 3 4 Maryland Court of Appeals upholds Maryland's statute banning same-sex marriage.[417] No No No No
Flag of Michigan.svg Michigan Pride at Work v. Granholm May 7, 2008 5 2 Michigan Supreme Court ruled that Michigan's constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage and civil unions also applies to domestic partner benefits.[418][419] No No No Constitution of Michigan prohibits domestic partner benefits for same-sex couples
Flag of California.svg California In re Marriage Cases May 15, 2008 4 3 California Supreme Court overturns Proposition 22 and rules that in 30 days, same-sex marriages must be legal.[420] Yes Yes Yes Same-sex marriage licenses issued in California from June 17, 2008 to November 5, 2008
No On November 5, 2008, Proposition 8 goes into effect banning same-sex marriage in the Constitution of California
Yes
Flag of Connecticut.svg Connecticut Kerrigan v. Commissioner of Public Health October 10, 2008 4 3 Connecticut Supreme Court rules that same-sex marriages must be legal in 30 days.[421] Yes Yes Yes Legalized same-sex marriage in Connecticut on November 12, 2008
Flag of Iowa.svg Iowa Varnum v. Brien April 2009 7 0 Iowa Supreme Court rules that same-sex marriages must be legal in 27 days.[422] Yes Yes Yes Legalized same-sex marriage in Iowa on April 27, 2009
Flag of California.svg California Strauss v. Horton May 26, 2009 1 6 California Supreme Court upholds Proposition 8; however, same-sex marriages performed before November 5, 2008, are also upheld.[423] No No No California Supreme Court upholds Proposition 8; however, same-sex marriages performed before November 5, 2008, are also upheld.
Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York Lewis v. New York State Department of Civil Service November 2009 3 2 The case challenging the recognition of same-sex marriages in the state of New York was heard by New York Court of Appeals and upheld the rights that came with the recognition of same-sex marriages.[424] Yes Recognition upheld Yes Continuing the recognition of same-sex marriages abroad.
Flag of Wisconsin.svg Wisconsin McConkey v. Van Hollen June 30, 2010 0 7 Wisconsin Supreme Court upholds constitutional amendment.[425] No No No No
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming Christiansen v. Christiansen June 2011 Allowed Wyoming Supreme Court allows two Wyoming residents to dissolve a legal relationship created under the laws of Canada.[426] Yes Yes Yes Couple can divorce in Wyoming
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland McConkey v. Van Hollen May 18, 2012 7 0 Maryland Court of Appeals upholds Maryland's recognition of out-of-state same-sex marriages.[427] Yes Recognition upheld Yes Continuing the recognition of same-sex marriages abroad.
Flag of Wisconsin.svg Wisconsin Appling v. Doyle July 31, 2014 7 0 On November 4, 2009, Wisconsin Supreme Court declined to hear the challenge to Wisconsin's domestic partnership.[428] On June 20, 2011, the Circuit court Judge Dan Moeser ruled that the domestic partnership registry does not violate the state constitution, finding that the state "does not recognize domestic partnership in a way that even remotely resembles how the state recognizes marriage".[429] On December 21, 2012, District 4 Court of Appeals affirms Judge Moeser's decision in a unanimous ruling.[430] On July 31, 2014, the Wisconsin Supreme Court ruled unanimously that the domestic partnership law does not violate the state's constitutional ban on same-sex marriage.[431] Yes Recognition upheld Yes Wisconsin's domestic partnership law is upheld.
Flag of Montana.svg Montana Donaldson and Guggenheim v. State of Montana December 2012 3 4 Montana Supreme Court affirmed a lower court's dismissal of this case because the plaintiffs had not identified specific state statutes in their complaint. They did not seek the right to marry, but equal treatment for same-sex couples with respect to inheritance rights, health care decisions, and parenting. The Court invited the plaintiffs to file an amended complaint citing specific statutes,[432] which the plaintiffs, did on April 16, 2013.[433] No No Pending (Lewis and Clark County District Court)
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico Griego v. Oliver December 19, 2013 5 0 On 21 March 2013 ACLU filed a lawsuit in the Albuquerque District court on behalf of two New Mexico couples who are seeking the right to marry. On 19 December 2013 New Mexico's Supreme Court declared that denying marriage to same-sex couples is unconstitutional in the state.[434] Yes Yes Yes Legalized same-sex marriage in New Mexico on December 19, 2013
Flag of Texas.svg Texas In Re Marriage of J.B. and H.B. June 19, 2015 n/a n/a County judge ruled statutory and constitutional ban on same-sex marriage in violation of the US constitution; appealed to 5th Texas Court of Appeals. The court says Texas's same-sex marriage ban is constitutional.[435] The Fifth Circuit denied en banc review. J.B. sought review from the Texas Supreme Court in February 2011 and that court requested briefs in October.[436] On July 3, 2013, the Texas Supreme Court sua sponte ordered supplemental merits briefing in light of United States v. Windsor.[437] Case dismissed on June 19, 2015 because a Petitioner died.
Flag of Texas.svg Texas Texas v. Naylor June 19, 2015 5 3 On January 7, 2011, the Third Court of Appeals in Austin in the case of State of Texas v. Angelique S. Naylor and Sabina Daly rejected, on procedural grounds, the Texas attorney general's appeal of a divorce granted by a lower court to a same-sex couple married in Massachusetts.[438][439] The appeal was still pending in December 2012.[440] Third Court of Appeals upheld in a 5-3 decision on June 19, 2015. The Court ruled that the Texas government had no standing to intervene in the divorce.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1 U.S.C. § 7
  2. ^ 28 U.S.C. § 1738C
  3. ^ Foley, Elise (March 16, 2011). "Democrats Aim For DOMA Repeal". Huffington Post.
  4. ^ Petition for Certiorari (No 12-307). Retrieved December 8, 2012
  5. ^ Liptak, Adam (June 26, 2013). "Supreme Court Bolsters Gay Marriage With Two Major Rulings". New York Times. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
  6. ^ "Weber Introduces "State Marriage Defense Act of 2014"". Press Releases. US House of Representatives. Retrieved January 16, 2014.
  7. ^ Bradley, Gerard V. (January 10, 2014). "The State Marriage Defense Act, January 10, 2014". Witherspoon Institute. Retrieved January 16, 2014.
  8. ^ Liptak, Adam (June 26, 2015). "Supreme Court Ruling Makes Same-Sex Marriage a Right Nationwide". New York Times. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
  9. ^ "HRC Talking Points on DC Domestic Partnership Program". www.glaa.org.
  10. ^ Ingram, Carl (August 24, 1994). "Senate OKs Bill on Rights for Unwed Couples". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 9, 2009.
  11. ^ "Wilson: no to domestic partnership bill". The Sacramento Bee. September 12, 1994. p. A1. Retrieved September 9, 2009.
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